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image, Lux Aeterna, by Scott Spires.

by Scott Spires
  

Avoid bad dreams.
  — Immanuel Kant, from his notebooks

Alexander Lindberg had spent almost two weeks in Prague, and still had nothing to show for it. Only a few days remained; then he would go home, write the trip off as a failure, and return to his life of reading, watching, and writing.

For this evening's excursion he had exiled himself to the pub U Vahy ("The Scales"), located in Smichov, a neighborhood just outside the central cluster of tourist attractions and rip-off prices. Lindberg liked Smichov for its air of shabby gentility, its dignified Hapsburg-era apartment blocks in faded yellow and green and gray, and its status as the Gypsy capital of Central Europe: here was one place in Prague where they didn't look askance at those keeping odd hours. And what he especially loved about The Scales was that it lived up to its name. Sunk several feet into the ground, the pub boasted a large bronze model of a pair of scales on its roof. Whether this had to do with justice (a court of law was nearby) or food (so was a market), Lindberg didn't know, and hadn't been able to find out; but he liked the look of it all the same.

He slid off his coat, sat down and plunged into a glass of Krusovice Dark, a black beer which was his current favorite; luckily he was alone at the little table, and had room to spread his papers out. He removed a pile of them from his briefcase and slammed them down on the table. After a moment's rummaging he selected one paper and placed it in front of him; at the top of it were the words "List of Local Contacts."

image, Gold dome and bronze statue.When he wasn't teaching courses in literature and film back in the states, Lindberg was writing film criticism and articles on cinematic history for various publications in the English-speaking world. He had reached the point where, in his late thirties, he was beginning to achieve the sort of name recognition that marked one's entry into the small cadre of critics that really mattered. All that remained, he felt, was a groundbreaking achievement he could call his own, the kind that might eventually gain him an entry in one of those compendious film encyclopedias with titles like The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Film or An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Cinema. Enlightenment came when he contributed an article to Sight and Sound on the legendary Czech director Martin Havranek. Attempting a general evaluation of Havranek's career, he had been frustrated by the fact that the director's final film, entitled Lux Aeterna ("Eternal Light"), shot in the 1960s, had been confiscated by the Communist authorities in 1968 and apparently never shown in public. To make matters worse, no one knew if a complete print of the film even existed. Maddening rumors surrounded Lux Aeterna: it lasted, depending on who you talked to, anywhere from four to eight hours; it was a love story made up of alternating monochrome and color sequences; it was a philosophical meditation on God, matter, and time, filmed mostly in sepia; it had taken six years to complete, or perhaps only six months; the lead actor committed suicide shortly after its confiscation, or perhaps he was murdered; it included a brilliant and hilarious car-chase sequence which had to be shortened due to lack of funds, or perhaps it did not. It was even suggested that the invading Soviet Army had carted off the film's odd-numbered reels to a vault in Moscow, while the even-numbered ones reposed somewhere in St. Petersburg.

To Lindberg, this was a mystery which simply had to be cleared up. With the help of a grant from a generous patron, he was soon on his way to Prague, intending to do precisely that. Now, after two fruitless weeks, he sat alone in a pub, wondering if anything could be salvaged.

Carefully he went over the list of contacts. Vaclav Cernik, Havranek's colleague on the faculty of FAMU, the national film school, had told him an amusing anecdote about a cow, but knew nothing about Lux Aeterna. Jiri Kubecka, film scholar and critic for the paper Lidove Noviny, had told him nothing he didn’t already know. Pavel Mueller, on the other hand, claimed some kind of special knowledge: at their last meeting he had titillated Lindberg with tales of secret archives and unofficial sources known only to him. Pavel was an amateur photographer and hanger-on in the theater and film world, where he had many friends. Lindberg decided he was worth another call.

A potbellied waiter appeared before him, brandishing a fresh glass of beer. "Jeste jedno pivo, pane?" he asked.

"Thank you," said Lindberg in halting Czech, "but this will be the last." Beer, he thought: the only medicine that works for me.

Since his arrival in Prague he had been haunted by nightmares. Almost every night, soon after the lights went off, he did battle with misshapen monsters and dragons, as well as vindictive traffic police and customs officials. Days of fruitless labor, he believed, were to blame; or perhaps it was the local cuisine, the inevitable pork and dumplings. Whatever it was, he considered beer a good tonic for this, as it caused him to sleep soundly and calmed his overworked mind.

Shortly thereafter Lindberg was sprawled dreamily inside the night tram. With tired eyes he observed the charmingly shabby buildings as he went past, the desolate glow of dormant shop windows, and a few nocturnal strollers. As the tram rattled and jingled towards the small furnished room where he was staying, his mind felt peacefully numb.

Excerpt from Lindberg's diary, detailing his dream of that night.

Since my sleep has been disturbed ever since I arrived here, I have decided to set down my dreams as accurately as possible, in the hope that it might help me get to the root of my anxiety. This latest nightmare was the most vivid of all, and following these techniques, I have reconstructed it as follows:

image, Cathedral at night.Just before I slipped into unconsciousness I saw briefly the image of Prague Castle, whose soaring facades and towers were spectral with soft greenish light. The blackness of the wooded district beneath gave it the appearance of being suspended in midair

After a while I passed the border zone and emerged into sleep. I found myself inside the Castle walls. A dark stone mass appeared: it was the Gothic bulk of St. Vitus' Cathedral. Rain was pouring down in a sun-drenched courtyard. Having no umbrella, I entered the cathedral and found that it was not a cathedral at all but a small, crowded cafe, its walls darkened by tobacco smoke. I sat down. A waitress passed by and I ordered tea. A steaming cup landed on the table in front of me, and I looked up. The waitress—a prim blonde girl with an enigmatic smile and a slightly upturned nose—was fixing an intent and luminous gaze on me. "Yes?" I said.

"Here's your bill," she said, laying a surprisingly long piece of paper in front of me. I cried out in pain: the bill listed several slices of German chocolate cake, one bagel with cream cheese, thirteen Cornish meat pies, a glass of vodka and three bottles of champagne, none of which I had ordered.

"This can't be it!" I choked. Tears were welling up in my eyes and blotting out the hateful sight of the unbelievable sum on the bill which amounted to more money than I had ever possessed in my life.

"Then this must be yours," said the smiling waitress. She put down a second piece of paper.

Mysterious black marks, resembling my own handwriting, covered the paper but were completely illegible. They looked like some ancient Semitic script. "What the hell's this?" I protested. "Give me the real bill."

"Don't be angry," she said. "If you can't read it, I'll translate."

"What is it?"

"A message from God."

Skeptically, I examined the spidery writing, paying closer attention this time, and suddenly all the objects around me—tables, chairs, chattering customers, tea, the waitress—vanished into a black void. An annihilating silence descended, and I was alone with only this unfathomable piece of paper for a companion. The black marks, so powerful they blocked out mere matter, overwhelmed me with terror and awe, and I screamed. I was plunging into the inscription as though it were a bottomless hole into another universe whose laws would reduce me to grains of dust in an instant. With a supreme effort of will I jerked my head away from the paper.

"See, I wasn't joking," said the waitress. I was back in the cafe; everything had returned to normal. "Now, do you want to know what it says?"

More than anything in the world I wanted to know what it said.

"Well—" she began, but behind her, one of the other customers went all red in the face and started choking to death. "I'll take that," she said and snatched the holy memorandum from my hand. She ran to help the choking patron and shouted at me "Wait here!"

"I can't!" I shouted, and sprang from my chair. I tried to run but the cafe was collapsing into a mass of formless gray slush, like mud-befouled snow. The slush engulfed me and I was left screaming in the avalanche.

It was five o'clock when I woke up. I tried to get back into the dream even though I knew it was futile.

I'm not sure whether God exists or not, but I still want to find out what he was trying to tell me.

Entry from The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Film, edited by E. MacDonald and F. Norman (Cambridge University Press, 1991), concerning the life and work of Martin Havranek.

image, Window with stained glass.Havranek, Martin (Frantisek) (1898-1972). Czech director and screenwriter, b. Kutna Hora, Bohemia. A graduate of the Prague Institute of Dramatic Arts, Havranek worked as assistant to F. W. Murnau and Fritz Lang in Berlin during the 1920s. After making a few experimental shorts in the style of the German expressionist silent cinema, Havranek returned to Prague, where he wrote and directed a series of remarkable feature films. He developed a style so idiosyncratic that none of his contemporaries dared to use it "for fear of looking ridiculous" (as one of them put it). Typically he would begin a film according to the conventions of some standard genre—a gangster movie, a love story, a science-fiction epic—and then gradually introduce inappropriate alien elements, capsizing the original conception and transforming it into something completely different. This technique, explored in such works as Envy and Joy (1931) and The Adventures of Hana Novotna (1934), reached its culmination in The Weight of the Universe (1936). Havranek opens this film with the spectacle of astronauts preparing, with the cheerful vigor and optimism of a forward-looking technological age, to blast into space. Their mission is the search for intelligent life "up there," familiar to us from a hundred novels and films. However, their spacecraft encounters insuperable mechanical difficulties, and when the whole project has to be scrapped, the space travelers sprout tuxedoes and bow ties, and the film becomes a musical satire on the rise of fascism in Europe. Havranek's unspoken moral is that we should devote our energies to the search for intelligent life "down here."

When the Nazis occupied Czechoslovakia in 1939, Havranek was banned from making films. After the end of the war, he planned to resume his career, only to have it aborted again after the Communist takeover in 1948. The Communist Party found his anarchic vision dangerous and refused to let him work on any major projects; he was forced to sit on the sidelines for almost two decades, contenting himself with teaching and editing jobs. Eventually he was given permission to direct another film. The result, Lux Aeterna (1966-68), was confiscated by the Soviet authorities as subversive, and never shown in public. It remains one of the greatest of cinematic mysteries. Havranek left no screenplay, and worked with a rotating crew of actors and technicians; since no single person was present throughout the whole period of shooting, no one besides Havranek himself knew the film as a whole. To date no complete print of this film has surfaced.

Havranek, in a state of official disgrace, left Prague for a village in southern Bohemia, dying there in 1972. Though his cinematic legacy is considerable, a comprehensive evaluation of it is impossible without considering Lux Aeterna, which he apparently regarded as his masterpiece.

The Savoy Cafe is located near the river on the edge of Mala Strana, that dense stone maze of baroque palaces and churches, crumbling yellow walls, and brittle red roofs. Its lofty white ceiling is inscribed with abstract patterns, elegant curls and folds which impress by their complexity but refer to nothing in particular, like the decorations in a mosque. True to its Hapsburg-Jugendstil era origins, service is slow.

"Pavel, do you believe in God?" asked Lindberg.

"The more important question is: does God believe in me?" said Pavel, clearly taken aback. "But after today, maybe I do." His bearded face lit up with a jovial expression.

"What do you mean?"

"Dr. Cernik claims that the film archive at FAMU has discovered something, that will interest you greatly."

"What?"

"Three short fragments, authentic ones! of Lux Aeterna. Don't ask me, why they only found this now. According to Dr. Cernik, these are out takes, so maybe not quite as authentic as you wish. But they are from the original shoot itself."

"Really!" said Lindberg. "How long are they?"

"Probably not more than ten or fifteen minutes. So your spirits, I think, should not rise too high."

"At last, I'm making some progress." Lindberg was hoping that he might even be able to construct a skeleton of the film from these shreds, much as an archeologist or linguist hypothesizes an entire imperial decree from a scattering of isolated glyphs across a shattered monument.

"I think you are not really a critic," said Pavel. "You are more like a detective."

image, Rooftops and plaza."Detective is not a bad job. Nor is critic. But neither was my first choice. Years ago, I wanted to make the films, not just write about them. But unfortunately, things didn't work out."

"Why?"

"Oh... circumstances." Lindberg waved his hand dismissively. "Or maybe a character flaw. Maybe I just didn't have the patience or the strength of character to make it."

"No," said Pavel, "I think you should blame the circumstances. In this country, you know, we have a lot of experience with them."

Transcript of Lindberg's dream of that night.

After a long interval of blackness Lindberg finds himself standing inside the Castle complex. His body feels heavy; he looks down and sees that he is wearing a raincoat. Good! he thinks: he's prepared for this one. But there's no rain, even though the sun is shining. And the cathedral is nowhere in sight. In its place is a long, dull, flat square, empty except for two soldiers in blue uniforms who are loping across it, followed by a dog.

What should I do? thinks Lindberg. Should I just stand here and wait for the cathedral to reappear? But what if they've taken it to the shop for repairs? In that case it might not come back for centuries.

A line of black taxis crosses the square. Lindberg is now on a crowded, bustling street somewhere in the Anglo-Saxon world. Great crowds hurry past; undernourished youths sell newspapers and bags of nuts; powerful white beacons search the sky. The air is thick with the smell of urban irritants. The taxis stop and disgorge passengers, most of them very expensively dressed: ladies with fur muffs and men in three-piece suits. Lindberg looks to his left and sees a theater marquee. It is blank, but most of the people are streaming into the theater anyway. Lindberg decides to follow them. He is swiftly caught up in the current of this human river and floats steadily into the theater's entrance, as helpless as a piece of driftwood. This is a little upsetting: he hasn't even bought a ticket! However, when he reaches the door his body lightens, as if it were being pumped full of helium, and he rises into the air, just high enough to sail over the assembled notables and into the lobby of the theater. He lands with a plop but soundly, on both feet. One of the ushers—a leathery old fellow with only one eye and a wrinkled visage—flashes him a knowing, gap-toothed grin, as if trying to reassure him that everything will be alright.

According to the program—which Lindberg acquires after landing on both feet—a "domestic comedy" entitled Used Cars for Sale! is the scheduled event for tonight. As he takes his seat amidst the audience, Lindberg looks around, hoping to spot the waitress so he can ask for the message, but the lights go down and the play begins. Two actors, both in business suits, come onto the stage and begin insulting each other.

"This is going nowhere," says Lindberg to himself, "time to look for the exit." As he stands to leave, the entire audience rises with him. He thinks they have the same idea, but no: as the lights come up they reach—all of them—under their seats, and each produces a custard pie. As if on cue they hurl these pies at each other with great ferocity. Gobs of yellow custard fly in every direction, splashing faces and clothing. Lindberg pushes and shoves his way to the exit: he's got to get out before his clothes are completely ruined! More custard pies materialize out of nowhere, and are obligingly thrown.

Suddenly Lindberg sees what he's been looking for: the waitress is standing in one of the front rows, looking fearless and serene. Lindberg raises a hand and shouts to her, but just as she turns towards him a custard pie hits her full in the face. She shatters into a thousand glassy pieces and, as jagged chunks of plaster cascade down from the ceiling, Lindberg collapses into unconsciousness.

"At that time he was in a terrible state," said Dr. Vaclav Cernik. "After the invasion, he went back and forth. Long periods of gloom, then short bursts of panic."

Dr. Cernik, tall, intense, white-haired, gestured before Lindberg's tired eyes as if working some complicated precision instrument. The little office gave off a faint whiff of coffee and cigarette smoke. A moat of papers and books, spread sloppily across Dr. Cernik's desk, separated the two men.

image, Plaza with clocktower."So," said Lindberg, "what happened then?"

"It was decided that a film of such potential importance must be confiscated for examination by the relevant political operatives. Havranek told all his friends not to talk about Lux Aeterna, hoping the authorities would overlook the whole thing. Festivals in France and Italy wanted to show it, but he didn't respond to them. They were confused, because they knew the film was almost finished, but he just refused to say anything. In the end, of course, this tactic of silence did not work." Dr. Cernik looked regretfully into the distance while puffing on his cigarette. "One day, they gave an official order to the people in charge of the film archive, and they carried the reels out of the building, onto a truck, and then—away."

"To...?"

"Just away—they didn't say anything. Then, that same day, Havranek comes to the archive. When they told him what happened, he looked like a man who comes back to his house and finds it burned to the ground." A pause, then: "He died incomplete, you can say." Another moment of silence, then: "But I don't want to delay you any longer. We will go to the screening room. The fragments have been put all on one reel, ready to show."

Lindberg and Cernik made their way through the bare corridors of the film school, up a flight of stairs, through a door and into a zone of darkness. They took their seats and, at a signal from Cernik, the projectionist flipped a switch. A rectangle of light was thrown onto the screen and the projector began to whirr in a rapid-fire staccato. Shapeless blobs appeared on the screen, then a few words and numbers whizzed past at great speed. Suddenly the screen revealed a lush, rolling landscape, grassy and abundant with vegetation, presented in sepia tone. "I'm sorry there's no sound," said Cernik, but Lindberg paid him no attention. A pair of human figures, dressed in black like monks, made their way steadily across this landscape; what appeared to be a lamb was following them at some distance. The two figures gestured as if deep in conversation. Then a strong wind blew, ruffling the vegetation and knocking one of the actors off balance. The screen went blank.

"That's probably why they cut this scene," theorized Cernik, "the wind blew at the wrong time."

The next clip appeared, accompanied by a cacophony of shouting. It was in ordinary black-and-white and looked like a courtroom scene. A lawyer was delivering what must have been the most vociferous denunciations and accusations while a white-robed angel sat attentive at the judge's desk, gavel in hand. Cernik took a stab at translating the lawyer's speech: something about this being a time of revolt, why are you just sitting there on your hands, I appeal to all of you to join me... He went on in this vein for some time. The faces of some spectators were shown in closeup. A click, then the screen went blank again.

"This is the last one," said Cernik as a delicate composition in pastel colors, again soundless, flashed on. An idyllic rural scene presented itself, as in the first fragment. This time it was a milkmaid attempting to milk a cow. She grabbed at the udder with a hesitancy which showed clearly she was neither an experienced milkmaid nor an experienced actress. After some struggle she managed to get a fairly steady rhythm going and filled the pail with an amount of yellowish milk, but the cow moved and kicked over the pail. The actress looked straight into the camera with evident disgust, and the screen went blank for the third time.

"That's it," said Cernik. Lindberg did not rise but simply sat in the dark feeling sluggish and empty. As he sat there, the lights came up, and he heard Cernik's voice, sounding just a little apologetic. "You know, some people think that last scene is not part of Lux Aeterna at all. They think it's a clip from a nature documentary that wound up here by mistake."

"It appears that, after a quarter-century of idleness, Havranek was able to recommence where he left off, and complete a film in the unique style that was characteristic of him." Lindberg looked closely at this sentence. He then took his pen and crossed it out, realizing it would never stand up to critical scrutiny. He tried again: "Although the surviving fragments of Lux Aeterna are scanty and enigmatic, Havranek's unique old style does succeed in coming to the surface. This film would seem to be the logical continuation of his earlier efforts." That felt a little better, but could it be justified? Regretfully Lindberg acknowledged that it was too speculative and flimsy, and crossed it out as well. Finally he wrote: "Nothing definite can be said about Havranek's final film, Lux Aeterna. The surviving fragments are too paltry to be of any help." These two sentences unburdened his conscience, and he put the manuscript away.

He lay down; his whole being was pervaded with a feeling of resignation. He told himself that the effort he had made was important: Lux Aeterna may have been lost forever, but if so, he had done more than anyone else to establish this melancholy fact. As he drifted into sleep he marveled at the intuition and boldness of cryptographers, archeologists, and paleontologists—at all those who were part of the reconstruction industry—and wondered what they possessed that he didn't.

image, Chandalier in cathedral.He entered the peaceful gray limbo that separated sleep from wakefulness. Eventually this hazy terrain cleared, like a fog dispersed by the sun, and he saw that he was standing in the courtyard in front of St. Vitus Cathedral. The sun was shining and rain started to pour down; people around him scrambled for cover. "If I can't solve the first mystery," he thought, "I'll solve the second." His mind was clear and he knew that all he had to do was take the next step and everything would go smoothly. He walked directly into the vast bulk of the cathedral, but found to his surprise that the cafe was gone. The cathedral was its usual monstrous size, and a cryptic quiet reigned as supplicants went about their business. Lindberg had no idea which way to turn; he felt small and out of place. "Maybe I should go outside," he thought. He was about to leave when he heard brisk steps hurrying his way; they echoed in the cavernous gloom. Then came a voice: "Are you looking for me?"

He turned around. It was the waitress, still wearing her apron in the cathedral. "Oh, how glad I am to see you," said Lindberg; then, in an attempt to sound friendly, he added: "The last time we met, you were smashed to pieces by a custard pie."

She laughed and said: "Unfortunately we're closed today, so I can't give you any tea."

"You know I didn't come for tea. I want the message from God."

"Of course." She reached into her apron and pulled out the piece of paper. She smoothed it out carefully, then held it up for him to see. Lindberg saw again the plain yet awesome black marks, the very hand of God.

"It's really very simple," she said, "so simple you might be a little disappointed. It's an invitation."

"To what?"

"To a private film showing."

"Of course," said Lindberg. "I should have known."

The waitress said, "You'd better get going, you don't want to be late!"

"Where is it?"

"In here." She held out the inscription.

"What do you mean?"

She laid the message on the floor, directly in front of him, then said with great authority: "Dive in!"

Lindberg got on his knees, rolled himself into a tight little ball, and hurled himself awkwardly at the piece of paper. He missed and went sprawling. "Try again!" said the waitress. He set both his hands on the inscription and tried to force his way in. It yielded slightly, then pushed him back. "No no! Head first!" said the waitress. He raised his head and attempted to aim it very precisely at the central squiggle of the inscription. Then, with intense concentration, he plunged forward. The black marks parted to admit him, and as they swallowed him he heard a faint "There you go!" issue from behind. He stumbled for a second, then righted himself and saw that he was standing in front of the same theater where Used Cars for Sale! had played the previous night. Snow was falling softly all around him in a foggy murk that was neither night nor day, and he felt like a man who has returned home after a long and arduous journey.

"Please come inside," intoned a clear and profound voice. The speaker was not visible, but Lindberg knew the voice was proceeding from inside the theater. He entered, and found the lobby completely empty and quiet. Shuffling of feet was heard, and from the auditorium came the very same one-eyed usher who had smiled at him the night before. This simple man radiated power: his modest physical being crackled with supernatural authority which ran through him like electricity from a hidden source. The usher extended his hand and directed Lindberg into the auditorium with nonchalant wags of his index finger. The effect, however, was of a controlling iron hand. "Only two minutes before it starts!" said the man in a croaking voice.

Lindberg entered the auditorium. He was the only person there, so he took the best seat in the house and made himself comfortable. The curtains were flung back and the film started. The words Lux Aeterna appeared on the screen, white against a black background. The credits ran past (with English subtitles), and the screen showed a lush, rolling landscape, grassy and abundant with vegetation, all presented in sepia tone. A pair of human figures, dressed in black like monks, made their way steadily across the landscape.

"I am not dreaming," thought Lindberg. "My quest is at an end."

Excerpt from a letter written by Martin Havranek in 1970, and sent to Dr.
Vaclav Cernik.

... granted, the film itself has disappeared, and whether it will surface again is an open question. Not in my lifetime, that's clear enough. But after fifty years of struggles I have found peace in the idea that the preservation of one's work is secondary to the act of creating it. That I had the opportunity to do it, and that I did it, is sufficient in itself.

image, Stained glass reflection.And perhaps when we've reached a certain stage in our development the need to show off one's creativity in front of others becomes unnecessary and distasteful...

But I digress. Few people in the village seem to have any idea who I am, and if they do they're not saying. Given the circumstances this is probably wise behavior on their part. As I write my window is open and I can hear tennis balls being smacked back and forth...

Excerpt from a nonexistent book, The Harvard Companion to Film, describing the career and achievement of A. Lindberg.

... after a brief interval of oblivion Lindberg was treated to a private screening of Lux Aeterna. However, he had neglected to bring with him a notebook or writing implement—clear dereliction of duty for a critic of his stature—and was unable to record his comments on the film in question. He made a mental note as to the film's great significance, and felt that his own life, as well as Havranek's, had somehow been completed by this event.

The return journey to his temporary lodging in Prague passed uneventfully. As he crossed the border, however, and light shattered his nocturnal experience into fragments that refused to fit back together, he felt a wave of panic. Groping for pen and paper, he managed to slash a few frenzied marks before all his memories evaporated, leaving behind only vague indescribable shadows...

Excerpt from An Experiment with Time by J. W. Dunne.

"Waking in the middle of the night, I have several times carefully memorized my preceding dreams. But, no matter how certain I have been that those memories were firmly fixed, I have never found one of them remaining in the morning. Even dreams which I have memorized just before getting up, and rememorized while dressing, have nearly always vanished by the end of breakfast."

Excerpt from Martin Havranek: Life and Work by Alexander Lindberg.

Nothing definite can be said about Havranek's final film, Lux Aeterna. The surviving fragments are too paltry to be of any help.

  

Scott Spires is a Chicago-based writer with a background in linguistics and Slavic studies. He has published fiction, non-fiction, and academic articles in a variety of publications, including New York Press, Chicago Reader, Satire, and The Journal of Baltic Studies.
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